Hlsc 730-discussion 4-reply 2 | HLSC 730 – Counterterrorism and Counterintelligence Strategies | Liberty University

The thread must be a minimum of 200-250 words. MINIMUM OF TWO SOURCES BESIDES THE TEXTBOOK. Must cite at least 2 sources in addition to the Bible.

TEXTBOOK: Prunckun, H. (2019). Counterintelligence theory and practice (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. Inc. ISBN: 9781786606884.

Ronczkowski, M. R. (2018). Terrorism and organized hate crime. (4th ed.). Boca Raton FL: Taylor & Francis (CRC Press). ISBN: 9781138703469.


Tenants of Defensive Counterintelligence: Prunckun (2019) summarizes the tenants of defensive counterintelligence through a 17-pillar process, however, generalizations can be made. 1, 2, & 3, describe executive authority, support, and ethical symmetry amassing into the legal right to act with the emphasis on whether actions should be taken forefront (Prunckun, 2019). 4, 5, & 6 discuss the need to be there, need to know, and prevent informational access to the enemy, these pillars enable decision-makers, typically with high-security clearance, access to sensitive information and places (Prunckun, 2019). 7 & 8 are linked to policies, regulations, and a synergic approach, cumulating into logical steps through a vetted process to tackle defensive counterintelligence strategies (Prunckun, 2019). 9 & 10 address early detection, and in-depth defensive methodology, laying some groundwork for program managers when determining how to advance once counterintelligence information is developed (Prunckun, 2019). 11, 12, & 13 illustrate caveats within counterintelligence, displaying unpredictability, core hardening, and prioritization into the decision-making process, essentially streaming pertinent information, and sidelining secondary (Prunckun, 2019). 14 & 15, quality vs quantity and cooperation, further arrange information into categories that are usable for program managers by putting value into the information (Prunckun, 2019). 16 & 17, in conclusion, place identifying the perpetrator’s forefront by reducing the field of suspects, and determining the level of complicity (Prunckun, 2019). Fine (2019) thoroughly examined defensive counterintelligence from a fiscal lens, arguing that pillars or key elements, like Prunckun (2019) illustrated, must be taken into consideration for an all-encompassing strategy to emerge.

Tenants of Offensive Counterintelligence: In contrast to defensive, offensive counterintelligence inquiries into agencies take proactive steps toward preventing attacks or an adversary’s intelligence gathering initiatives (Child, 2020). Prunckun (2019) framed an 11-pillar approach to examining offensive counterintelligence strategies, many similar in nature to defense. 1, 2, & 3 begin with executive responsibility, justification, and ethical symmetry, again probing the legal right to act offensively to prevent an enemy’s attack, without deliberately violating an individual’s right (Prunckun, 2019). 4 & 5 consider friendly access and actions against leaks, these pillars are clearly aimed at internally controlling information access while preventing the release of sensitive information (Prunckun, 2019). 6, 7, & 8, deceptive operations, decoys, and red team testing, ensure strong internal protocols are followed when launching an offensive mission, testing responses, tactics, and methodology (Prunckun, 2019). 9, 10, & 11 direct agencies to focus upon synergy with information sources, collective avenues, or double agents, intentionally placing ethics and balance into an innately hostile industry (Prunckun, 2019). Child (2020) emphasizes offense or proactive initiatives as essential to preventing attacks against America, embodying the need for systematic approaches like the methodology Prunckun (2019) took to breaking down counterintelligence.

Ethical, Moral, or Legal Dilemmas/Christian Viewpoint: Summarizing the complications of ethical, moral, and legal dilemmas within counterintelligence is innately difficult as Prunckun (2019) cites due to the wide stretching arms of this discipline. Ethically, offensive counterintelligence brings the most controversy, as these actions are typically invasive into other independently governed countries or infringe upon people’s civil liberties (Mello & Wang, 2020). However, as Mello & Wang (2020) display through digital surveillance, the cost of this invasion must be worth the information gathered. Ethics piggyback into morals, according to Mello & Wang (2020) who unequivocally state that pursuing terrorists, both foreign and domestic, on social media is a morally based fight. Although, Prunckun (2019) contends that these moral issues arise constantly, and required supervision, outside perspectives, and a strong internal compass to truly embody morals in counterintelligence. Legally, the lines defining counterintelligence ultimately become blurred at times, foreign governments, agents, and loosely described laws all contribute to this struggle (Prunchun, 2019). Mello & Wang (2020) Further complicate this discussion by stating that the laws governing foreign hackers provide almost no protection, however, is the individual’s location based on where the virtual offense was committed or where the person is? Ethics, morals, and laws collectively encompass the most challenging aspects of counterintelligence because they are innately tied to a person’s character, upbringing, and intrinsic values, therefore religious beliefs become paramount.

             Religion indefinitely guides a person’s sense of ethics and morals, Christianity being the backbone of American society clearly focuses on self-reflection, discipline, and the holy scripture of the Bible. For example, Christian leaders have always placed significant value on leading a moral life, between Sunday sermons and gatherings speakers talk descriptively about doing what’s right in life. Although life can complicate this message, a true Christian can always boil it down to right or wrong, “So whoever knows the right thing to do and fails to do it, for him it is sin” (English Standard Version, 2001/2016 James 4:17). Attaching this moral compass to legal authority prescribed by governments further complicates these internal struggles, but the Bible lays out a strategy for followers, “Let every person be subject to the governing authorities. For there is no authority except from God, and those that exist have been instituted by God” (English Standard Version, 2001/2016 Romans 13:1).  


Child, D. (2020). Revitalizing Counterintelligence: A Strategic Approach for Great Power

Competition. Marine Corps Command. https://apps.dtic.mil/sti/citations/AD1177544Links to an external site.

English Standard Version. (2016). Bible hub. Retrieved from https://biblehub.comLinks to an external site. (Original

work published 2001).

Fine, G. (2020). Fiscal Year 2020: Oversight Plan. Office of the Inspector General.

https://apps.dtic.mil/sti/citations/AD1116217Links to an external site.

Mello, M., & Wang, C. (2020). Ethics and Governance for Digital Disease Surveillance. Science. 

368(6494). https://doi.org/10.1126/science.abb9045Links to an external site.

Prunckun, H. (2019). Counter-Intelligence; Theory and Practice. Rowman & Littlefield 

Publishing. Lanham, Maryland.  

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